The operating system of the 1A-server is based on Debian Linux, an extremely stable distribution on which a number populair derivatives are based, like Ubuntu and Kali Linux.
The basic principles of Debian are laid down in the Debian Social Contract and the Debian Free Software Guidelines. In addition, there is the Constitution, which contains the structure of the project and the Code of Conduct, the rules of conduct for all participants.
We use Debian not only for the 1A-servers, but also the service-supporting servers in our datacenters (the NOC) often run on this extremely stable operating system. For example, the web hosting environment, the central VoIP servers and so on. We also supplement the operating system with additional software, both from third parties and written by us.
Our own code first goes through a review system, where the changes are assessed by colleagues. It is then tested and built by Jenkins. The 1A servers and the NOC servers are frequently updated with the latest stable versions.
Updating the software is done unnoticed in the background. Rebooting is only needed once in a while when a new kernel (the core component of a Linux based system) is installed. All upgrades follow a strict DTAP flow (DTAP = Development, Test, Acceptance, Production), which is why customers notice as little as possible from maintenance.
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